Iran's Crises Unfolded  
Friday 1 July 2022


* Missed messages on Iran  Robert Kagan

* Envoy Condemns US Officials' Irresponsible Comments on Iran  News Report

* 'Israel will be destroyed if it attacks Iran'  News Report

* Warning of long war if Israel attacks Iran  News Report

* Iran unlikely to halt nuclear program, secret letters show  News Report

* Iran denies Ahmadi-Nejad was attacked  News Report

* Sanctions set stage for a new push on Iran  News Report

* اطلاعیۀ آیت الله منتطری دربارۀ حرام بودن مقاومت در برابر رأی مردم  Ali Behrooz

* لیست اسامی با حروف فارسی، تا تاریخ 08/09/08  Ali Behrooz

* War of words, or words of war  Ali Behrooz

* Could Israel use submarines against Iran?  News Report

* Iran deplores UAE claim on 3 islands  News Report

* 'Iran will respond to any attack'  News Report

* Carter to meet Hamas leadership in Cairo  News Report

* No Peace Without Hamas  News Report

* Ahmadinejad again voices Sept. 11 doubts  News Report

* Clinton, Obama tackle Iran issue in debate  News Report

* Bomb kills at least 9 in Iran mosque  News Report

* Iran demands Israel stop force threats  News Report

* Ahmadinejad to dismiss 2 cabinet ministers in Iran  News Report

* Iran: Naval encounter routine check  News Report

* Tony Blair's Palestine  News Report

* Clinton attacks Obama and McCain over Iraq  News Report

* Reza Pahlavi: Leadership for Democracy in Iran  News Report

* Petraeus: Return to 'pre-surge' troop levels, then wait  News Report

* Blast rocks US complex in Sanaa  News Report

* Clashes in Nile Delta after strike aborted  News Report

* When a great power goes mad  News Report

* Iranians defy censor with bootleg DVDs  News Report

* Putin says Iran is no threat  News Report

* Creating a US-Iran Bridge  News Report

* Court removes PKK from terror funds list  News Report

* 12 militants wanted by Israel flee Palestinian jail in West Bank after fight  News Report

* Limiting Tehran’s Influence?  Ali Behrooz

* UAE detains ship as grip on Tehran tightens  News Report

* Iranian critic not guilty of espionage  News Report

* Israelis and Palestinians pledge to reach peace pact by end of 2008  News Report

* Conference in Qom focuses on Iran-US challenges  News Report

* FM spokesman: Iran's plan on Iraq not put for voting  News Report

* Iran's top dissident cleric calls for U.S. talks  News Report

* Islamic militants take fight against Musharraf to 'Pakistan's Switzerland'  News Report

* 'Desperate' Musharraf declares martial law  News Report

* US Sanctions on Iran Leave Europeans in a Quandary  Sir Cyril Townsend

* After Thamilselvan  News Report

* Analysis: Is Abbas playing his cards right ahead of ME summit?  News Report

* Bahrain accuses Iran of nuclear weapons lie  News Report

* Senior Tamil Tiger leader killed  News Report

* US declares PKK 'a common enemy'  News Report

* Iran urged to join Gulf nuclear deal  News Report

* Iran's leaders need enemies like Bush, and at every turn he obliges them  News Report

* Giuliani hits Democrats on Iran  News Report

* Iran: We have no information on Arad  News Report

* Clinton hails US move on Iran  News Report

* Israel to prepare for potential missile attack  News Report

* US First Lady in Kuwait  News Report

* Rice: Mideast solution in jeopardy  News Report

* Kurdish fighters defy the world from mountain fortress as bombing begins  News Report

* Protesters confront Condoleezza Rice as she testifies on Middle East  News Report

* Showdown With Iran  News Report

* U.S. outlines Baghdad security handover plan  News Report

* Poll shows global opposition to Iran - and U.S.  News Report

* Iraq promises Turkey it will curb Kurdish rebels  News Report

* Big shoes to fill  News Report

* LUKOIL says halts Iran oil project on US sanctions  News Report

* Three soldiers killed in Darfur camp attack - UN  News Report

* There's a better - and cheaper - way that Washington can help Lebanon  News Report

* Lebanese patience for Nahr al-Bared displaced wears thin  News Report

* Iran, Syria urge diplomatic means instead of military incursion into Iraq  News Report

* Talabani refuses to deliver PKK leaders to Turkey amid protests against incursion  News Report

* Turkey vows to defeat PKK rebels  News Report

* Iran N-case on Olmert's Paris agenda  News Report

* Motaki (FM): US in No Position to Attack Iran  News Report

* We will fight to the death, Kurdish rebel leader vows from his hideout  News Report

* Deaths And Hostages In Border Clash  News Report

* Flash News: Kurdish separatistand 12 Turkish soldiers killed  News Report

* IRGC Commander:Aggressions to Be Reciprocated with a Rain of Rockets  News Report

* 2 leaders back Blair as European Union president  News Report

* Babacan stresses dialogue as key to solving Lebanese crisis  News Report

* Jordan hopes for positive outcome of Annapolis meeting  News Report

* Iran's nuclear negotiator resigns  News Report

* Larijani Resigns  Ali Behrooz

* NATO says shipment of roadside bombs was 'from Iran'  News Report

* Israel impeding effort to clear cluster bombs  News Report

* Bhutto defiant over bomb attack  News Report

* Democrats' stance on Iran criticized  News Report

* Top Palestinian negotiator may resign  News Report

* UN condemns killing of its truck drivers in Darfur  News Report

* Kurds sign oil deals beyond regional borders – former minister  News Report

* Jerusalem is ours, warns Likud  News Report

* Rice back in Israel after Egypt talks  News Report

* Haft Tapeh Sugar Cane workers in southern Iran go on strike  News Report

* Ahmadinejad: Caspian states to form economic cooperation organization  News Report

* Putin lands in Iran for nuke talks  News Report

* Mideast Conference and the Illusive Peace  News Report

* Coalition of the Reluctant  News Report

* World bank neglects African farming, study says  News Report

* Putin dismisses threat of assassination in Iran  News Report

* Israel signals readiness to cede parts of Jerusalem to Palestinians  News Report

* Christiane Amanpour: 'People think I relax with a Kalashnikov - I don't'  News Report

* After honeymoon, Sarkozy method poses three risks  News Report

World bank neglects African farming, study says
[ News Report]  [2007-10-15 15:59:16]
[Source: Intn'l herald Tribune - 15/10/07]

By Celia W. Dugger

The World Bank, financed by rich nations to reduce poverty in poor ones, has long neglected agriculture in impoverished sub-Saharan Africa, where most people depend on the farm economy for their livelihoods, according to a new internal evaluation.

The evaluation was posted late last week on the bank's Web site at a delicate moment.

The bank president, Robert Zoellick, after 100 days in office, declared in a recent speech that a Green Revolution for Africa was among his top priorities. On Friday, as ministers from around the world gather for the bank's annual meeting in Washington, it will release its flagship World Development Report, this year devoted to agriculture.

The evaluation of the bank's role in African agriculture was conducted by an internal unit that assesses all of its operations and answers to the bank's board and president, not its management.

In the 1980s and 1990s, when African governments faced severe fiscal crises, the bank pushed for the public sector — often badly managed and inefficient — to pull back from agriculture, incorrectly assuming that market forces would jump-start agricultural growth.

"In most reforming countries, the private sector did not step in to fill the vacuum when the public sector withdrew," the evaluation found.

One result, it said, is that farmers face practical obstacles: exorbitant fertilizer prices and shortages of credit and improved seeds. In recent years, yields for cereal crops in sub-Saharan Africa were less than half of South Asia's and one-third of Latin America's, the evaluation said.

At a time of growing debate about how to combat hunger in Africa, the evaluation team recommended that the bank, the single largest donor for African agriculture, concentrate on helping farmers get the basics they need to grow and market more food: fertilizer, seeds, water, credit, roads.

Two poverty analysts who often disagree — Professors Jeffery Sachs of Columbia University and William Easterly of New York University — read the evaluation and found it withering.

Professor Sachs called the evaluation "a blistering, devastating critique." Professor Easterly, a research economist at the bank for more than a decade, likened the evaluation to saying Coca-Cola is bad at making its signature soft drink. "Here's your most important client, Africa, with its most important sector, agriculture, relevant to the most important goal — people feeding their families — and the bank has been caught with two decades of neglect," he said.

The bank's management, in its written reply to the evaluation, differed with some of the analysis and had a more optimistic reading of the agricultural growth data, but said it was already carrying out the evaluation's main recommendation — that the bank should invest more in agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.

The evaluation noted that the bank's lending for African agriculture, which fell to a low of $123 million in 2000 from $419 million in 1991, had increased to $295 million in 2005 and $685 million in 2006.

Bank managers, in a written reply and an interview on Sunday, said the evaluation team had not given enough recognition to the new directions the bank had taken since African leaders committed in 2003 to increase spending on agriculture.

"We agreed with the general thrust of the evaluation," Obiageli Ezekwesili, vice president for the Africa region at the bank, said in an interview. "What we, of course, want to state is that every evaluation is backward looking."

Looking ahead, she said, the bank is now working with African countries "that have increasingly begun to realize that agriculture has to have pride of place in public expenditures."

More must be done to overcome a dearth of seeds and fertilizers, she said.

While acknowledging the recently increased aid levels, Vinod Thomas, who leads the bank's Independent Evaluation Group, said in the evaluation that the bank's limited financing for agriculture had not been well used. The evaluation group reviewed lending trends for a portfolio of 262 projects over the past 15 years that had agriculture components.

"The lending support from the Bank has been 'sprinkled' across various agricultural activities such as research, extension, credit, seeds and policy reforms in rural space, but with little recognition of the potential synergy among them to effectively contribute to agricultural development," he wrote.

The evaluation also found that the bank, which has a staff of about 10,000, had only 17 technical experts assigned to the department that deals with agriculture and rural development in sub-Saharan Africa last year.

Bank policies in the 1980s and 1990s that pushed African governments to cut or eliminate fertilizer subsidies, decontrol prices and privatize may have improved fiscal discipline but did not accomplish much for food production, the evaluation said.

It had been expected that higher prices for crops would give farmers an incentive to grow more, while competition among private traders reduced the costs of seeds and fertilizer. But those market forces often failed to work as hoped.

"The whole thing was based on the idea that if you take away the government for the poorest of the poor that somehow these markets will solve the problems," Professor Sachs said. "But markets can't step in and won't step in when people have nothing. And if you take away help, you leave them to die."

Professor Easterly said the bank's managers had made elementary mistakes. "It was a simplistic, Economics 101 lesson, that if you raise prices, farmers produce more, which makes sense if farmers have roads, access to credit, good access to fertilizer markets," he said. "But most of the time, farmers were lacking those."

Some agricultural analysts hope the current reconsideration of African agriculture offers a new opportunity.

Carl Eicher, a professor emeritus at Michigan State University and an authority on African agriculture, said rich country donors and African governments also shared some responsibility for the continent's farming problems.

"The bank is turning the ship around and it has been for the last couple of years," said Professor Eicher, who has served as a consultant to the bank. "So let's give them a little credit."


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Iran's Crises  1998 - 2007   ©